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微观经济学名词解释双语版.docx


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微观经济学名词解释双语版.docx
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微观经济学名词解释双语版微观经济名词解释CHAPTER1BriefingScarcity:thelimitednatureofsociety'sresources.Economics:thestudyofhowsocietymanagesitsscarceresources.Efficiency:thepropertyofsocietygettingthemostitcanfromitsscarceresources.Equity:thepropertyofdistributingeconomicprosperityfairlyamongthemembersofsociety.Opportunitycost:whatevermustbegivenuptoobtainsomeitem.Rational:systematicallyandpurposefullydoingthebestyoucantoachieveyourobjectives.Marginalchanges:smallincrementaladjustmentstoaplanofaction.Incentive:somethingthatinducesapersontoact.Marketeconomy:oodsandservices.Propertyrights:theabilityofanindividualtoownandexercisecontroloverscarceresources.Marketfailure:asituationinwhichamarketleftonitsownfailstoallocateresourcesefficiently.Externality:theimpactofoneperson'sactionsonthewell-beingofabystander.Marketpower:theabilityofasingleeconomicactor(orsmallgroupofactors)tohaveasubstantialinfluenceonmarketprices.Productivity:thequantityofgoodsandservicesproducedfromeachhourofaworker'stime.Inflation:anincreaseintheoveralllevelofpricesintheeconomy.Phillipscurve:acurvethatshowstheshort-runtradeoffbetweeninflationandunemployment.Businesscycle:fluctuationsineconomicactivity,suchasemploymentandproduction.Circular-flowdiagram:avisualmodeloftheeconomythatshowshowdollarsflowthroughmarketsamonghouseholdsandfirms.Productionpossibilitiesfrontier:binationsofoutputthattheeconomycanpossiblyproducegiventheavailablefactorsofproductionandtheavailableproductiontechnology.Microeconomics:thestudyofhowhouseholdsandfirmsmakedecisionsandhowtheyinteractinmarkets.Macroeconomics:thestudyofeconomy-widephenomena,includinginflation,unemployment,andeconomicgrowth.Positivestatements:claimsthatattempttodescribetheworldasitis.Positivestatements:claimsthatattempttodescribetheworldasitis.InvisibalhandEconomicmanPerfectinformationMarketclearingCHAPTER2Supply-DemandEquilibriumQuantitydemanded:theamountofagoodthatbuyersarewillingandabletopurchase.Lawofdemand:theclaimthat,otherthingsequal,thequantitydemandedofagoodfallswhenthep 内容来自188 金宝搏www.atombb.com转载请标明出处.